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小学英语语法最全归纳(下) 发布日期:2019-10-08  浏览次数:

第十二讲:一般现在时


1. 定义:表示经常发生或习惯性的动作.状态。句中通常有usually,often,everyday,sometimes,always,atweekends,onSundays 等表示经常性时间的短语。


2. 构成:

当谓语是be动词时,一般现在时的构成:主语+be动词+其他。如:I am a student . He is Jim's father. They are from Japan.

当谓语是行为动词时,一般现在时的构成:

主语(非第三人称单数)+动词原形+其他

主语(第三人称单数)+动词的第三人称单数形式+其他

3. 动词三单形式的变化规则


4. 一般现在时的句型转换:

image.png



第十三讲:现在进行时


1. 定义:表示现在或现阶段正在进行或发生的动作。句中常有now,look,listen等词。如:

I am washing clothes now.

Look! Liu Tao is climbing the tree.

Listen! Jane is singing in the music room.


2. 构成:be动词(am/is/are)+动词现在分词(V-ing)


3. 动名词其实就是动词的现在分词,它既有名词性质(可作主语),又有动词性质(可带宾语)。如:

Asking the way

My hobby is collecting stamps.

He is good at skating.


4. 现在进行时的句型转换:

image.png


第十四讲:一般过去时


1. 定义:表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或存在的状态。常和表示过去的时间状语连用。如:a moment ago,just now,yesterday,last week,this morning等。如:My brother often went to school by bike las t term.


2.构成:主语+动词的过去式+其他


3.动词过去式的变化规则


4.一般过去时的句型转换

image.png



第十五讲:一般将来时


1.定义:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态,以及打算.计划或准备某事。句中一般含有表示将来的时间状语,如:tomorrow morning,next week,this afternoon等表示将来的时间状语。


2.构成:

be going to+动词原形

I am going to see a Beijing opera tomorrow.

We are going to meet at bus stop at half past ten.


will+动词原形

They will go swimming this afternoon.


3.be going to和will区别:

be going to表示经过事先安排、打算或决定要做的事情,基本上一定会发生;will则表示有可能去做,但不一定发生,也常表示说话人的临时决定。

I am going to take part in a party this evening.


They are cleaning the library now. I  will go and join them.


be going to表示近期或眼下就要发生的事情;will表示的将来时间则较远一些。

He is going to write a letter tomorrow. I will meet her one day.


be going to还可以用来表示有迹象表明某件事将要发生,常用于天气等自然现象。

Look! It's going to rain.


4.一般将来时的句型转换

image.png


第十六讲:句法


1. 陈述句:说明事实或陈述说话人观点的句子。基本结构:主语+谓语+其他


肯定陈述句:We all like pandas very much.

否定陈述句He doesn't do housework at weekends.


2. 肯定陈述句改否定陈述句

①一般是在be动词或情态动词后加not。

Mary was at school yesterday.

→Marywasnotatschoolyesterday.


I can make a model plane.

→I cannot make a model plane.


②不含be动词或情态动词的,行为动词前要用助动词的否定式(don't,doesn't,didn't),后面跟动词的原形。

Helikesdrawingpictures.—>Hedoesn'tlikedrawingpictures.

Iwenttotheparkyesterday.—>Ididn'tgototheparkyesterday.


3. 陈述句改一般疑问句

①有be动词或情态动词的,把be动词或情态动词提前。

Mary was at school yesterday.

→Was Mary at school yesterday?


I can make a model plane.

→Can you make a model plane?


②不含be动词或情态动词的句子,借助助动词开头,动词还原成原形。

He likes drawing pictures.

→Doeshelikedrawingpictures.


I went to the park yesterday.

→Did you go to the park yesterday?


5. 疑问句:用来提出问题,询问情况的句子,末尾用问号。


一般疑问句:一般疑问句常用来询问一件事是否属实,通常以be动词,助动词或情态动词开头,用yes或no来回答,因此又叫是非疑问句,通常读升调。

特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词引导,要求回答具体问题,不能用yes或no来回答。


选择疑问句:提供两种或两种以上情况,让对方选择,往往用or连接。


反意疑问句:反意疑问句是由陈述句和附在其后的附加疑问句组成。


6. 祈使句:表示请求或命令别人做某事或不做某事。用于第二人称,通常省略you。用于第一人称和第三人称,通常以let(let后跟宾格)或shall开头。


肯定祈使句:Openthedoor,please.

否定祈使句:Don'tbelateagain.


7. 感叹句:表达喜怒哀乐等强烈感情,句尾常用感叹号(!),语气用降调。

what+名词或名词性短语

What a big garden  (it is)!

What an interesting storybook (it is)!

What lovely weather (it is)!

What pretty girls (they are)!


how+形容词或副词+主语+动词

How nice!

How beautiful the flowers are!

How tall YaoMing is!


8. there be句型表示在某地有某人或某物。

主语是单数,be动词用is(was);主语是复数,be动词用are(were)。

There is some milk in the fridge.

There are some peaches in the basket.


如果有几个不同的人或物并列存在,be动词根据最靠近的那个名词而定。


there be句型和have/has区别:there be句型表示某地有某人或某物;have/has表示某人有某物。has用于第三人称单数,其余人称和复数用have。


There are some English books on the desk.


I have some English books.



第十七讲:话题


1. 介绍

My name is Tom.

I'm GaoShan.

This is David.

The man in a white coat is my father.


2. 问候.告别

Hello!/Hi!

Good morning!/Good afternoon!/Good evening!

How are you?——Fine, thank you./Not bad, thank you./ Not so good.

Nice to meet you.——Nice to meet you, too.

How do you do?——How do you do?

Goodbye!/Bye!/Bye-Bye!

See you (tomorrow/later).

Good night.


3. 谈论人或物

What's your name?/Your name, please?

Who is he?

What's this in English?

How old are you?

Where are you from?/Are you from the USA?

What's your job?

What is she?


4. 请求.劝告.建议.征求

May I come in?

Can I have a look?

Yes./ Sure.

Sorry, you can't.

Don't forget to close the windows.

We must go home now.

Let's go to school.

Shall we go now?

Why don't you buy a new one?

What about a cup of tea?

Would you like a hamburger?

What would you like?

Yes, please. /Yes, I'd like to. /Yes, I'd love to.

No, thanks.


5. 道歉.感谢.赞扬

Excuse me.

Sorry. /I'm sorry.——That's OK/all right./It doesn't matter.

Thanks./Thank you./Thank you very much.

Not at all./You're welcome./It's my pleasure.

It's pretty/smart/nice.

How nice!


6. 询问时间.星期及日期

What's the time?/what time is it now?——It's twelve o'clock. It's time to have lunch.

What day is it today?——It's Sunday/Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Friday.

What date is it today?——It's the 12th of July.


7.购物

Can I help you?/What can I do for you?/What would you like?——I'dlikea/an/some…

Anything else?

What about the red one?

How many kilos?——Five kilos, please.

How much is it/are they?——It's/They're twenty yuan.

Here's your change.


8.打电话

Hello, may I speak to Nancy?——This is Nancy speaking.

Is that Tom (speaking)?——Yes, this is Tom speaking.

Who's that (speaking)?---It's LiuTao here.

Wait for a minute./Hold on, please.

Sorry, she isn't in.


9.问路.指路

Excuse me. Where's the nearest post office?

How can I get to the nearest post office?

Can you show/tell me the way to the nearest post office?

How far is the nearest post office from here?

How many stops are there?

Go along this road and then turn right/left at the third crossing.

The post office is on your right/left.

It's over there. Near the Bank of China.

You can take bus No.8 and get off at the third stop.

Sorry, I don't know. You can ask the policeman.


10. 谈论兴趣爱好

Do you have any hobbies?

What's your hobby?

Do you like swimming?

I (don't) like swimming.

We have the same hobby.


11. 谈论天气

What's the weather like today?

How is the weather?

It's sunny / rainy/ cloudy/ windy/ warm/ cool/ hot/ cold.

Which season do you like best?


12. 询问和表达感觉

What's them atter?/ What's wrong with you?/ How do you feel now?

I'm tired./I feel ill./I've got a bad cough.

I'm sorry to hear that./ I hope you get better soon.

Take some medicine and have a lot of rest.

Here's some medicine for you.

I can get some fruit for you


13. 谈论节日

When's Christmas?——It's on the 25th of December.

What do people usually do on Christmas day?

What's your favourite holiday?



第十八讲:构词法


1. 合成法:由两个或更多的词合成一个词。如:

basket(篮子)+ball(球)=basketball(篮球)

post(邮寄)+office(办公室)=postoffice(邮局)

pencil(铅笔)+box(盒子)=pencil-box(文具盒)


2. 派生法:由词根加前缀或后缀构成一个新词。如:

un+usual(寻常)=unusual(不寻常)

usual(寻常)+ly=usually(寻常地)


3. 转化法:由一种词性转化为另一种词性。如:

water水(名词)——water浇水(动词)

light灯(名词)——light轻的(形容词)

book书(名词)——book预订(动词)

hand手(名词)——hand上交(动词)



以上是对小学英语语法知识——词法和句法汇总的简单梳理,知识内容广泛,但都有很强的规律性,学习时,我们应掌握其基本规则和语言机构并合理运用,只有这样才能将小学英语语法——词法和句法的汇总真正掌握住。


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